Gone but not forgotten

Lately I’ve been thinking about Henry Crowther’s magic lantern slides of ancient Cypriot ceramics, and regretting those which no longer survive in the Leeds City Museum’s collection. These images are the shadows which remain of objects which have been lost, deaccessioned or destroyed.

For example, this lentoid flask with a single strap handle is marked ‘Enkomi, Cyprus’.

Lentoid flask from Enkomi, Cyprus. © Leeds Museums and Galleries

Lentoid flask from Enkomi, Cyprus.
© Leeds Museums and Galleries

This means it’s almost certainly the one sent to the Museum of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society by the British Museum in 1902, described by A.S. Murray, Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities, as a ‘flat-bellied flask of plain red ware.’

BM list

Extract from A.S. Murray’s note. © British Museum

There are two tankards, one with two bands of incised decoration and a thumb-grip, the other with a raised band below the lip and a simple loop handle. The colours are rather deceptive as they were added by hand by Miss Violet Crowther, Henry Crowther’s daughter, but suggest that both of these were of red ware.

Tankard with thumb grip and incised decoration. © Leeds Museums and Galleries

Tankard with thumb grip and incised decoration.
© Leeds Museums and Galleries

Tankard with looped handle. © Leeds Museums and Galleries

Tankard with looped handle.
© Leeds Museums and Galleries

There’s a dish with a small loop handle and painted decoration, which looks quite heavily restored, judging by the cracks and the gap in the pattern. The decoration looks like stylised Bronze Age helmets, though I’m not entirely sure…

Dish with painted decoration. © Leeds Museums and Galleries

Dish with painted decoration.
© Leeds Museums and Galleries

There are also some lamps, including this three-wicked example; I particularly like the leaf-shaped projections near the handle. The vine-and-grape decoration, with a long-haired head in relief, presumably indicates Dionysus and perhaps suggests it was for use in a banqueting setting.

Lamp with triple wick. © Leeds Museums and Galleries

Lamp with triple wick.
© Leeds Museums and Galleries

I’m intrigued by the decoration on this smaller lamp, which seems to show an eagle holding an ear of wheat in its beak. I’m not very clear on the symbolism, but this may be associated with the god Baal; I haven’t seen anything quite like it before.

Lamp with ?eagle and ear of wheat. © Leeds Museums and Galleries

Lamp with ?eagle and ear of wheat.
© Leeds Museums and Galleries

Most of these probably perished in the Second World War bomb, but it’s just possible that some may turn up one day; we know that there are quite a few objects currently with Artemis, the School Loans Service. I’ll certainly be looking out for them!

Advertisements

Where did it come from? Part II: An Amathus connection?

As previously mentioned, the Leeds University ancient Cypriot collection came to light in the University’s cellars in 1913, where Lady Bodington supposed it had been overlooked since her husband, Sir Nathan Bodington, ordered it for a University fundraising event.

This may well have been the case; but there’s an alternative explanation, which might also help to account for another mysteriously overlooked collection. The British Museum sponsored excavations at Amathus in Cyprus in 1893-94, led by J.L. Myres and A.H. Smith. In 1895 the Trustees agreed to a proposal from A.S. Murray, Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities, to donate objects from these excavations to a range of museums, colleges and universities around the country. These included the Yorkshire College, Leeds, of which Nathan Bodington was the Principal. A letter from Nathan Bodington accepting the offer on behalf of the College survives in the British Museum’s archives.

The trail then goes cold; there is no record of the collection arriving in Leeds, or trace of it in the College’s annual record, although this generally gives full details of all donations. The Museum of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society was often used by the Yorkshire College’s students, but again, the Society’s annual report makes no mention of any donation. This contrasts with the treatment of a further gift of Cypriot antiquities from the British Museum in 1902 to the Museum of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, which is written up in full in that year’s annual report.

Given this silence in the official records, it seems at least possible that the University’s collection is this same donation from the British Museum’s excavations in Amathus. There’s no way of knowing for sure; but there are a few factors which tie in with this theory. The collection covers the right timescale, from the Cypro-Geometric to the Roman period. Also, some of the pottery is decorated in a style typical of Amathus, with freely applied red and brown stripes and circles on a background of buff slip.

UNIV.1913.0013 Bowl with decoration typical of Amathus © University of Leeds

UNIV.1913.0013
Bowl with decoration typical of Amathus
© University of Leeds

There are also some parallels between surviving objects in the University of Leeds collection, and those of other museums and colleges who were sent donations from Amathus by the British Museum in 1895. That said, there are plenty of objects in those collections which aren’t reflected in the surviving University collection; for example, there are no figurines. However, Lady Bodington intended to give part of the collection to the Leeds Girls’ High School, and this may well have filled in some of the gaps.

The British Museum possesses Myres’ notebooks from his excavations in Amathus, which provide brief records of tomb contents, and illustrations of unusual pieces. These raise a number of tantalising possibilities; could the University of Leeds jug marked 292 be one of the ‘2 small painted jugs’ recorded by Myres in the tomb of that number?

UNIV.1913.0002 Jug marked '292' © University of Leeds

UNIV.1913.0002
Jug marked ‘292’
© University of Leeds

And could the unusual Punic one-handled jug, probably an import from Carthage, be the ‘jug of red clay’ illustrated by Myres from Tomb 291?

UNIV.1913.0033 Punic jug © University of Leeds

UNIV.1913.0033
Punic jug
© University of Leeds

Myres notesbook, Tomb 291 - '1 jug of red clay' © British Museum

Myres notesbook, Tomb 291 – ‘1 jug of red clay’
© British Museum

On the face of it, it seems unlikely; the British Museum donated duplicates, i.e. common items, to other institutions, rather than anything out of the ordinary; but there is certainly a similarity between the shape of the Leeds jug and Myres’ sketch.

Whether or not this collection originated from Amathus, it merits research and a higher profile, not least to honour Nathan Bodington’s contribution to the study of the ancient world in Leeds, which prompted Lady Bodington’s donation. Just over a century after its rediscovery, the collection is entering a new phase of its existence with new opportunities to ‘encourage a taste for archaeology’, in line with her wishes.

Trowelblazing and amphora handle

I’m very pleased to have a guest post on the Trowelblazers blog. It’s a brilliant site, designed to ‘reset imaginations’ by celebrating women’s contributions to archaeology, palaeontology and geology (you can read their manifesto here). I’m delighted to have made a small contribution to this agenda through my micro-blog on Virginia Grace, who was indomitable in investigating and cataloguing stamped amphora handles, primarily at the Athens Agora, but also working on collections across the world. What really impresses me is that she saw the potential in the subject and grew it from small beginnings to a valuable source of evidence in all kinds of contexts, including the Antikythera shipwreck. For more information, I recommend the excellent biography by Sara Immerwahr.

I came across Virginia Grace while researching an amphora handle in the Leeds City Museum Cypriot collection.

Amphora handle © Leeds Museums and Galleries

Amphora handle
© Leeds Museums and Galleries

Amphora handles tend to be interesting not so much for the objects themselves (it’s not the most visually exciting ceramic I’ve ever come across), but for what they can tell us about commerce and trade routes in the ancient world. Many amphora handles have impressed stamps from which their place and date of manufacture can be deduced. Since they were impressed before firing, they often survive very well and are still legible.

The stamp on the Leeds handle can be seen reasonably well in the photo below.

Amphora handle stamp © Leeds Museums and Galleries

Amphora handle stamp
© Leeds Museums and Galleries

It reads (in Greek):

ΚΛΕΑΡΧΟΥ
ΝΑΜΟΥ

which can be expanded to Ἐπὶ Κλεάρχου Πανάμου. ‘Panamou’ refers to the month of Panamos in the Rhodian calendar, while Klearchos is the eponymous magistrate under whose jurisdiction the amphora will have been manufactured. His dates are c.205-200 BC, so we can deduce that this amphora was made in Rhodes at some point during this period.

When it comes to its Cypriot provenance, things get a bit more complicated. It’s supposed to have been found in Paphos, though this depends on its identification as one of two amphora handles from Cyprus donated to the Museum of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society by the British Museum in 1902. A.S. Murray, Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities at the BM, produced a detailed handwritten list of the donation, which identifies the amphora handles:

Extract from note by A.S. Murray © British Museum

Extract from note by A.S. Murray
© British Museum

According to this list, the stamp should read either ΦΙΛΑΙΝΙΟΥ or ΕΠΙ ΜΥΤΙΩΝΟΣ (give or take a few missing letters), which evidently it doesn’t. It’s not clear how this came about; whether a different amphora handle was dispatched from the BM, or whether it became misattributed as a result of the WWII bombing of the Leeds City Museum, which does appear to have introduced a fair amount of confusion into the records. This obviously limits the information the handle can give us; but it’s good to know where and when it came from, if not the full story of its journey to Leeds.

Nathan Bodington, the British Museum and Cyprus

The links between the Leeds City Museum and the University of Leeds go back a long way; both organisations grew out of the social and cultural development of Leeds in the nineteenth century. The first Vice-Chancellor of the University, Sir Nathan Bodington, was also an active member of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, and contributed to the intellectual life of Leeds in many ways. He had a direct connection with the current Museum’s Cypriot collections, having been instrumental in gaining donations of ancient Cypriot artefacts from the British Museum for the benefit of the students of the Yorkshire College, a forerunner of the University. He also visited Cyprus and made a small collection of his own, which is now in the Museum.

Portrait of Nathan Bodington, from the memoir by W.H. Draper

Portrait of Nathan Bodington, from the memoir by W.H. Draper

Nathan Bodington was born in Birmingham in 1848, and studied Classics at Oxford, teaching at a number of institutions before being appointed Professor of Greek and Principal of the Yorkshire College in 1882. Here his talents as a leader and administrator came into their own, as he steered the College through membership of the Victoria University federation of colleges, and its development into the free-standing University of Leeds in 1904, when he became its first Vice-Chancellor. He was knighted in 1908 in recognition of his services to education. Bodington’s wide-ranging responsibilities at the College and University left him little free time, yet he still managed to participate in the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society (serving as President from 1898-1900), write literary reviews for the Manchester Guardian, take up photography, and travel extensively overseas, including to Cyprus.

His first recorded involvement with the Leeds Cypriot collections came in 1895, when he wrote on behalf of the Yorkshire College to A.S. Murray, Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities at the British Museum, thanking him for the offer of ‘a selection of antiquities from recent excavations in Cyprus’.What happened to these artefacts is something of a mystery, to which I will return another time. However, this contact seems to have been the beginning of a friendship between Bodington and Murray; the British Museum archives record several letters from Bodington in subsequent years, mainly dealing with the traces of Roman roads in the Leeds area, a long-standing interest of his. In 1902 a further donation of Cypriot artefacts was made by the British Museum to the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, arranged by Murray following a request from Bodington.

26 items were dispatched to Leeds, mainly from Enkomi and Klaudia, including this Mycenaean stirrup jar, and some beautifully decorated spindle whorls.

Mycenaean stirrup jar Leeds Museums and Galleries

Mycenaean stirrup jar
 Leeds Museums and Galleries

Spindle whorl Leeds Museums and Galleries

Spindle whorl
 Leeds Museums and Galleries

Spindle whorl Leeds Museums and Galleries

Spindle whorl
 Leeds Museums and Galleries

Most of the artefacts, helpfully documented by Murray, are still in the collection today; some tantalisingly appear in Henry Crowther’s slides, but have since vanished, including this bowl and juglet.

Extract from Murray's list of items sent to Leeds

Extract from Murray’s list of items sent to Leeds

Bowl and juglet, photographed by H. Crowther.   Leeds Museums and Galleries

Bowl and juglet, photographed by H. Crowther.
 Leeds Museums and Galleries

Tracing these artefacts back to the British Museum’s excavations, and understanding the links between them and those remaining in the British Museum, are some of the most fascinating aspects of my work with the Leeds Museum collection.

In 1907 Bodington married Eliza Barran, daughter of Sir John Barran, sometime Leeds M.P., J.P. and Mayor, who was also active in the establishment of the University. Bodington was 59 at the time, and their marriage was to be short-lived, as he died just four years later. Six years after his death, Eliza Bodington donated several objects collected by him in Cyprus to the Museum of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society. It is a small but varied collection, including this well-preserved Archaic amphora, a bronze mirror, and a knucklebone, presumed to have been used as a gaming-piece. Bodington’s interest in ancient Cypriot artefacts is not surprising, given his life-long passion for classics and the ancient world.

Archaic amphora  Leeds Museums and Galleries

Archaic amphora
 Leeds Museums and Galleries

Bronze mirror  Leeds Museums and Galleries

Bronze mirror
 Leeds Museums and Galleries

Knucklebone  Leeds Museums and Galleries

Knucklebone
 Leeds Museums and Galleries

Nathan Bodington was a wise and generous man, phenomenally hard-working, who did a huge amount to establish the University to which I am proud to belong today. It’s therefore particularly pleasing that he has a personal connection to items in the Museum’s ancient Cypriot collection, which gain interest through their association with him.

Dedication of W.H. Draper's memoir of Nathan Bodington

Dedication of W.H. Draper’s memoir of Nathan Bodington