A Bronze Age figurine in the Leeds City Museum collection

I recently visited the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh for the first time. It’s an amazing building with an incredible variety of collections; I could happily have spent days there. The World Cultures galleries don’t have a major focus on ancient Cyprus, but I did track down a few Cypriot items in the context of ancient Egypt.

National Museum of Scotland World Cultures gallery © National Museum of Scotland

National Museum of Scotland World Cultures gallery
© National Museum of Scotland

As well as a very nice Mycenaean stirrup jar, similar to the one in the Leeds collection, and another Base Ring juglet, I was delighted to see this female figurine (on the left of the photo above). There is a similar figurine in the Leeds City Museum collection (below), sadly lacking her head and her legs below the knee.

Bronze Age female figurine © Leeds City Museums

Bronze Age female figurine
© Leeds City Museums

We don’t know when or where this figurine was found, but on stylistic grounds it can be dated to the 15th – 14th century BC. It may have looked something like this example from the Met Museum, New York.

Bronze Age female figurine © Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Bronze Age female figurine
© Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The head would have been ‘bird-like’ in appearance with a sharply beaked nose, round eyes, and large ears pierced with several rings. I still have hopes of coming across it in the stores one day! The navel doubles as a firing hole, to allow the release of hot gases during the firing process – a practical and creative solution.

Figurines such as these were generally found in tombs. The emphasis on their female characteristics has led to much speculation about their significance and functions; the pose of the arms and hands draws attention to the breasts, and the incised decoration emphasises the pubic area rather than suggesting any form of clothing. An earlier view was that they were intended as concubine companions for the (male) deceased on their journey to the afterlife:

‘If the blatant display of pubic triangle seems more lusty than bereaved, perhaps they were anticipating a long trip. The deceased might appreciate a few diversions.’

(Desmond Morris, The Art of Ancient Cyprus, 1985).

It’s tempting to speculate that this tells us more about C20th attitudes and assumptions than about the figurines themselves. Today they are viewed less as ‘diversions’ than as significant in their own right, associated with fertility, regeneration and rebirth. They may represent a primal Cypriot fertility goddess, who over time, and under influence from East and West, became assimilated with Astarte, Ashtoreth, and Aphrodite. This type of figurine may originally have been based on Syrian models; the Levantine influence is apparent from these Syrian Bronze Age figurines in the Ashmolean Museum’s collection.

Syrian Bronze Age female figurines © Ashmolean Museum

Syrian Bronze Age female figurines
© Ashmolean Museum

Even without her head, this is one of the most speaking pieces in the Leeds Museum collection. I hope in the future to uncover some information about her journey to Leeds, and the people involved.

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2 thoughts on “A Bronze Age figurine in the Leeds City Museum collection

  1. Of the two canonical types of these Late Cypriot (ie Late Bronze Age) figurines, the so called “flathead” (Morris called them “headgear”) and “earrings” types which each remained remarkably unchanged over about 300 years (over 200 of each are known) this looks more like the flathead type. The pose of the arms is what is believed to be one of worship and is the standard one for that type, while in the earrings type it would be unusual. By the way a large proportion of those are depicted holding a baby). Also the earrings type usually has wider hips and the navel penetrating to the interior is much more common in the flathead type. Normally only the flathead type has a painted pubic triangle.
    Some writers have linked the flatheads to the Egyptian god Hathor who was linked to Bronze working and flatheads are usually found at locations where bronze was produced. Both types, but especially Earring figures, with their rather bird-like faces, relate formally to Syrian figures linked with the goddess Astarte (supposedly born on the coast of Cyprus, like her Greek version Aphrodite) and before that Babylonian figures of Ishtar.

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